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OLD SPRINGS METHODIST CHURCH CEMETERY

From "Aiken County Cemeteries" published by Aiken-Barnwell Genealogical Society*

 OLD SPRINGS METHODIST CHURCH CEMETERY   

INVENTORIED BY:   MARY SIZEMORE WILLIAMS & MILDRED BARTON   FEBRUARY 8, 1990

Take Hwy. 19 South to Chime Bell Rd., turn right on

Chime Bell Rd., go to dead end, about 4 4/10 miles,

church on left. Turn left on Co. Rd. 146, go about 1 & 1/2

miles, turn left on dirt road, cemetery on left in woods.

There is a large Memorial Marker about center of cemetery that states:

"SITE OF OLD SPRING METHODIST CHURCH ORGANIZED 1820,RELOCATED 1953, ST. PAUL METHODIST CHURCH, NEW ELLENTON SC"

() indicates information added by Mary S. Williams

Comments by Sanford Toole in RED

TOOLE, FRANCES, b.7-27-1885, d.8-8-1916, wife of A. A. TOOLE

grave, b.1855, d.1922, age 67 years, In Memory of my father {Albert A. Toole}

TOOLE, MARY A., b.10-16-1860, d.12-17-1861

OWENS, SAMUEL M., d.10-14-1884, age 14 years

STROUD, REV. WILLIAM H., b.3-23-1813, d.1-2-1892

TOOLE, Z. W., d.9-2-1882, age 12 years, son of G.D. & M.J. TOOLE, 1st son

TOOLE, A. H., d.9-2-1882, age 10 years, 3 mos., son of G.D. & M.J TOOLE, 2nd son

graves,     2, markers next to each other, with footstones, no inscriptions

WIDNER, SEREPTA, b.9-26-1837, d.7-19-1914, wife of ISSAC WIDNER

WIDNER, ISSAC, b.8-26-1820, d.7-1-1890, in memory of

WIDENER, E. A., b.12-4-1867, d.12-16-1902, in memory of

HANKINSON, WADE G., b.1851, d.1928

HANKINSON, LULA C., b.8-1-1869, d.11-14-1897, wife of WADE G. HANKINSON

WIDNER, ROBBIE, b.7-4-1892, d.8-5-1895, son of ISSAC & H.H. WIDNER

WIDNER, FLORENCE, b. & d.4-1896, dau.of ISSAC & H.H. WIDNER

grave, stone marker, no inscription

TYLER, CORA, d.8-30-1876, age 9 mos., 16 days, dau.of M.V. & ROSA TYLER

GREEN, IDA F., b.12-27-1878, d.10-2-1880, dau.of J.I. & M.A. GREEN

GREEN, MARIA A., b.8-22-1842, d.10-25-1906, wife of AMES I. GREEN

grave, small, granite marker, no inscription

grave, small, granite marker, no inscription

grave, small, wooden marker, no inscription

KEY, J.J., d.3-27-1908, age 70 years, (served in Civil War, but no CSA marker,

      great grandfather of Mary S. Williams)

KEY, CHARLOTTE, b.12-15-1844, d.12-97-1905,(wife of J.J. KEY, dau. of BENJAMIN

CARTER)

BOYD, LILLIAN, b.7-12-1900, d.11-3-1911

BOYD, LAVINIA, b.1876, d.11-16-1917, wife of B.B. (BUTLER) BOYD, (dau.of J.J.KEY)

HEATH, RALPH TALMADGE MD., b.12-27-1903, d.5-14-1986, CAPTAIN, MEDICAL CORPS.,

      US ARMY WWII

HEATH, RUDOLPH WENDELL MD., b.12-10-1906, d.6-21-1979, SURGEON, AIR TRANSPORT CO.

      US ARMY WWII

HEATH, HEZEKIAH TOOLE, b.6-10-1870, d.4-21-1959

HEATH, ARDELLA M. HOLLENBECK, b.3-17-1872, d.8-31-1942, wife of H.T. HEATH

HEATH, WAYNE CLESTER, b.2-6-1897, d.11-8-1899

GRAVES, VICTORIA GREENE, b.1.1-20-1859, d.7-28-1910 Barnwell SC, married

      REV. U. P. GREEN, Mineral Springs, Arkansas, March 1903

GREENE, EULA V., b.7-23-1861, d.3-22-1920

HEATH, OLIVIA, b.12-23-1882, d.7-5-1888, dau.of F. & M. A. HEATH

HEATH, FICKLING, b.8-14-18,V8, d.4-1904

HEATH, MAHALEY, b.3-20-1847, d.7-23-1919

 

 

PAGE 2 SPRINGS CEMETERY

HEATH, SARAH, d.12-19-1891

HEATH, ISAAC, b.12-24-1861, d.9-2-1887

HEATH, MRS. K. N., d.8-1-1889

HEATH, ELSIE, d.3-20-1892, wife of H. D. HEATH

HEATH, HANSFORD, d.12-3-1893

grave, foot marker J. M. B.

grave, foot marker G. E. B.

grave, plain foot marker

BRYANT, ELSIE HEATH, b.6-5-1853, d.10-15-1903, wife of T. L. BRYANT

TOOLE, WARREN L., b.4-30-1904, d.6-11-1905, son of M. J. & HATTIE TOOLE

TOOLE, BERNICE, b.9-21-1899, d.1-27-1903, dau.of MARION & HATTIE TOOLE

TOOLE, MARION, b.5-16-1901, d.10-17-1902, son of MARION & HATTIE TOOLE

WIDENER, LULA, b.7-8-1884, d.8-11-1886, dau.of ABRAHAM & FRANCES WIDENER

WIDENER, ABRAM, b.12-14-1846, d.8-20-1914

grave, brick outlined, no inscription

WIDENER, CARSON D., b.7-18-1894, d.7-3-1943, son of JESSE P. & MATTIE L. WIDENER

WIDENER, HOBSON, b.7-18-1898, d.7-13-1914, son of JESSE P. & MATTIE L. WIDENER

grave, ummarked, no inscription

WIDENER, JESSIE P., b.10-6-1871, d.11-17-1899

WIDENER, MATTIE L.(KEY), b.8-15-100, d.4-1-1946, wife of JESSIE P. WIDENER (dau.of

      J. J. KEY)

grave, child, brick outlined, no inscription

grave, child, brick outlined, no inscription

grave, child, brick outlined, no inscription

grave, child, brick outlined, no inscription

grave, child, brick outlined, no inscription

READY, DAWSON, b.9-30-1881, d.12-27-1946

READY, LOTTIE, b.3-5-1891, d.1-2-1987, wife of DAWSON READY

grave, plain unmarked slab enclosed with iron piping

grave, plain unmarked slab enclosed with iron piping.

grave, plain unmarked slab enclosed with iron piping

EUBANKS, KATIE GENEVA, b.10-26-1907, d.12-26-1907, daug. Of J.S. & K.M. EUBANKS

grave, small unmarked, no inscription

JONES, REV. B. G., d.2-9-1891, age 75 years

GREENE, WILLIE H., b.9-14-1870, d.10-2-1885, son of H. & F.V. GREENE

GREENE, WILLIAM H., b.8-10-1833, d.1-5-1888, age 54 yrs. 4 mos. 25 days

JONES, F. V., b.3-10-1841, d.5-5-1892, wife of W. H. GREENE, & B. G. JONES

EUBANKS, JASON, b.12-11-1847, d.1-1-1862, son of JOSEPH & MARY EUBANKS, died

      at Port Royal Ferry

EUBANKS, DARLEY, b.2-12-1848, d.1-1-1862, son of JOSEPH & MARY EUBANKS, died

      at Port Royal Ferry

EUBANKS, JOSEPH ASBELL, b.11-8-1875, d.4-4-1948

EUBANKS, MINNIE H. JOHNSON, b.3-26-1874, d.8-29-1947, wife of JOSEPH ASBELL EUBANKS

EUBANKS, STATEN, b.1-15-1845, d.12-5-1888, old marker reads, died 12-5-1888 age 44

EUBANKS, MARY, no dates

EUBANKS, MARTHA, no dates

EUBANKS, CAROLINA, no dates

EUBANKS, JOSEPH, b.5-23-1810, d.11-24-1896

EUBANKS, SARAH M., b.1-15-1833, d.5-17-1917, wife of JOSEPH EUBANKS

JENNINGS, ANNIE, b.10-28-1801, d.1-18-189-, wife of JOSEPH JENNINGS

HEATH, CAROLINA, b.4-15-1840, d.10-30-1893

HEATH, JAMES S., d.2-2-1908, age 63 years

101

PAGE 3 SPRINGS CEMETERY

HEATH, MARTHA SALEM, b.7-3-1873, d.8-11-1930, dau.of JAMES & CAROLINA HEATH

BEARD, Infant, b.& d.5-7-1918, dau,of J.C. & B. BEARD

BEARD, GARY CECIL, b.8-26-1921, d.4-22-1922, son of J.C. & B. BEARD

EUBANKS, ADA L., b.1-14-1875, d.10-12-1902, wife of M. P. EUBANKS {Ada Toole}

TOOLE, GARRY, b.4-28-1851, d.10-9-1925

TOOLE, ARKANSAS, b.1-20-1851, d.6-6-1912, wife of GARRY TOOLE

LAWRENCE, ALICE TOOLE, b.11-1-1876, d.8-30-1950

GORDON, WILLIAM, CO B 2 SC ARTY CSA

HEATH, A. J., b.5-10-1844, d.12-18-1907 {Angus J. Heath}

HEATH, FRANCES, b.10-6-1841, d.8-31-1901, wife of A. J, HEATH {Francis Eubanks}

HEATH, UNITY, b.2-6-1843, d.9-21-1885, wife of A. J. HEATH {Unity Eubanks}

HEATH, OLIVE, b.3-13-1881, d.1-6-1882, dau.of A. J. & U. HEATH

HEATH, JORDAN, b.5-25-1810, d.4-1-1889

HEATH, SOPHIE, b.3-24-1817, d.5-31-1893, wife of JORDAN HEATH {Sophie Toole}

HEATH, JESSIE A., b.10-11-1870, d.2-8-1902, dau.of A. J. & U. HEATH

HEATH, LARKIE E., b.8-26-1879, d.4-16-1897, dau.of A. J. & U. HEATH

JETHRO, LEROY, b.12-29-1829, d.8-12-1886

BENTLEY, JOWN W., b.6-16-1866, d.12-27-1883

BENTLEY, JUDIETH GORDON, b.9-29-1.840, d.4-21-1881, wife of JOHN B. BENTLEY

GORDON, WILLIAM, CO B 2 SC ARTY CSA

BENTLEY, J. B., d.4-5-1908, age 80 years

KEY, WILLIAM, b.8-26-1859, d.9-19-1914

KEY, FRANCES, d.10-7-1898, age 40 years, wife of WILLIAM KEY

WILLIAMSON, JOE G., b.11-17-1881, d.3-15-1948

WILLIAMSON, B. L., b.12-23-1884, d.4-5-188-, son of MR. & MRS. B. F. WILLIAMSON

WILLIAMSON, BETSEY ELIZABETH, b.6-17-1866, d.5-17-1886, wife of B. F. WILLIAMSON

WIDNER, HARRIETT, b.3-3-1866, d.6-18-1925, wife of I SAAC WIDNER, (dau.of J.J. KEY)

grave, adult, unmarked

grave, child, unmarked

grave, child, unmarked

WIDENER, CLESTINE, b.1-24-1916, d.12-6-1918, dau.of I.L. & E.M. WIDENER

WIDENER, ESSIE KEY, b.1900, d.1921

WIDENER, IKEY L., b.11-14-1891, d.11-14-1950

WIDENER, MYRTLE A., b.2-2-1908, d.4-6-1962

WIDENER, CLINTON, b.5-25-1935, d.1-3-1956

HANKINSON, HELEN, b.3-29-1920, d.12-31-1920, dau.of J.E. & KATE HANKINSON

EUBANKS, TRANNIE JOHNSON, b.10-11-1879, d.7-28-1960, wife of D.C. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, DARLEY C., b.2-4-1878, d.8-9-1937

EUBANKS, BENJAMIN, b.1-20-1846, d.4-6-1917

EUBANKS, EUGENIA S., b.2-10-1946, d.1-1-1885, wife of B. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, IDA TYLER, 3-15-1943

EUBANKS, JOSEPH WAYNE, b.4-9-1945, d.9-28-1987

EUBANKS, EDWARD WAYNE, b.10-26-1909, d.4-16-1983

TOOLE, W. ARTHUR, b.1900, d. 1938

Starting at back fence

HEATH, Infant, b. & d.12-28-1.914, dau.of W. H. & N. C. HEATH

HEATH, Infant, b. & d.7-30 or 31-1918, son of W. H. & N. C. HEATH

TOOLE, CODY D., b.4-3-1898, d.6-16-1960

TOOLE, GIPSON, b.4-11-1906, d.4-20-1952

COLLINS, ARRIE TOOLE, b.5-28-1893, d.2-21-1962

COLLINS, W. E., 1-23-1882

 

PAGE 4 SPRINGS CEMETERY

grave, no inscription, Posey Funeral Home Marker,

WIDENER, GOLDIE SR., b.4-26-1905, d.2-17-1946

grave, child's, homemade marker with marbles, no inscription

WIDENER, BABY BOY, 1959

WIDENER, EVELYN, b.9-29-1913, d.6-17-1937 grave, no inscription

WIDENER, STANCY, b.9-13-1891,d.12-12-1922,(wife of HAMP WIDENER, dau.of J.J.KEY SR.) WIDENER, HAMP, b.10-7-1875, d.4-29-1927

grave, no inscription

WIDENER, LLOYD H. SR., b.4-29-1909, d.3-15-1975

WIDENER, VIRGINIA HUMPHREYS, b.1916, d.1990, age 73

TOOLE, SAMUELLA 0., b.7-28-1912, d.5-20-1980

TOOLE, OLIVER R., b.2-14-1900, d.12-7-1967

LOWE, CULL, b.5-1-1870, d.11-25-1944

LOWE, DAISY, b.11-18-1877, d.7-5-1923, wife of M. C. LOWE

LOWE, FURMAN, b.5-13-1924, d.5-14-1924, son of M. C. & W. E. LOWE

LOWE, CLEVELAND, b. & d.11-20-1911, son of M. C. & DAISY LOWE

LOWE, GEORGIA, b.8-1-1899, d.6-19-1900, dau.of M. C. & DAISY LOWE

LOWE, BLANTON, b. & d.11-28-1909, son of M. C. & DAISY LOWE

FORD, ANGELINE E., b.12-5-1871, d.8-23-1928, wife of LUTHER F. FORD

LOWE, MARVIN, b.6-2-1916, d.9-8-1920, son of M. C. & DAISY LOWE

TOOLE, JOHNATHAN N., b.4-17-1857, d.1-22-1890

grave, no inscription

TOOLE, FRANKLIN S., b.4-13-1852, d.8-19-1930

TOOLE, CLARISA HEATH, b.2-29-1865, d.1-6-1938

HANKINSON, MYRTLE H., b.1910, d.1944, wife of 0.R.. HANKINSON

TOOLE, CAROLYN HEATH, b.11-17-1871, d.11-4-1940

TOOLE, ISREAL EMLIN, b.5-13-1855, d.5-14-1930

TOOLE, Infant, no b.or d., son of E. E. & E. C. TOOLE

TESTON, BETTY TOOLE, b.1903, d.1928, wife of W. C. TESTON

KEY, JESSIE MAY, b.10-5-1914, d.10-3-1915, dau.of A. W. & HORTENCE KEY

HEATH, J. J., 5-21-1866 in the 5th year of age, son of J. I. & M. A. HEATH

SLATER, EDDY, 3-1862, 7 years, 10 days

SLATER, VICTOR, 3-19-1862, age 17 years, 10 months

KEY, VIRGIE, b.6-4-1889, d.8-12-1846, dau.of JEFFIE & INDIA KEY

KEY, INDIA WEATHERSBEE, d.10-18-1923, age 57 (dau.of ANDREW ANDERSON KEY, wife of

            JAMES JEFFERSON KEY & WILLIAM WEATHERSBEE)

KEY, JEFFIE, b.11-25-1861, d.6-25-1896, (JAMES JEFFERSON KEY, son of J. J. KEY, SR.)

KEY, FREDDIE, b.3-12-1893, d.6-6-1907, son of JEFFIE & INDIA KEY

KEY, MINNIE LEE, b.2-26-1896, d.9-18-1910, dau.of JEFFIE & INDIA KEY

BUFORD, ENOCH, b.10-16-1868, d.6-11-1918

TOOLE, OSCAR R., b.8-8-1891, d.10-31-1974

TOOLE, CLARISA L., b.8-14-1886, d.9-10-1920, wife of 0. R. TOOLE

TOOLE, Infant, b. & d. 1-1-1917, son of 0. R. & C. L. TOOLE

NEWMAN, WILLIAM HENRY, b.8-31-1901, d.11-25-1960

NEWMAN, LOUISE T., b.9-19-1908, d.6-26-1960

EUBANKS, MISSOURI E., b.2-27-1871, d.12-25-1876

EUBANKS, MISSOURI A., b.2-28-1846, d.5-31-1871, wife of E. A. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, PERRY W., b.2-14-1875, d.11-30-1876

EUBANKS, EDMOND L., b.2-29-1876, d.12-17-1876

EUBANKS, CARRIE MAY, b.9-11-1878, d.9-16-1879

EUBANKS, Infant, b.& d.5-10-1882, dau.of E. A. & A. A. EUBANKS

103

 

 

PAGE 5 SPRINGS CEMETERY

EUBANKS, EDMOND A., b.8-18-1844, d.7-1-1905

EUBANKS, AVIL ANN, b.9-14-1848, d.6-4-1902, wife of E. A. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, I. J., b.8-26-1842, d.4-18-1862, son of WALTER & ELIZABETH A. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, I. 0., b.8-30-1860, d.9-5-1864, dau.of WALTER & ELIZABETH A. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, WALTER b.10-13-1816, d.1-27-1896

EUBANKS, ELIZABETH A., b.9-12-1824, d.7-20-1900

EUBANKS, INDIA A., b.5-10-1867, d.9-21-1867, dau.of WALTER & ELIZABETH A. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, EDDIE, b.10-1892, d.5-29-1893, son of I. T. & L. J. EUBANKS

JOHNSON, FRANK H., b.11-12-1876, d.3-4-1934

JOHNSON, LOVENIA, b.7-18-1853, d.4-5-1925 {Lovenia Toole}

JOHNSON, HANSFORD, b.8-8-1848, d.4-22-1896

JOHNSON, NETTIE HANKINSON, b.1-10-1887, d.1-15-1976

JOHNSON, A. TILLMAN, b.11-5-1881, d.1-1939

JOHNSON, ELLA R., b.9-12-1882, d.2-21-1883, dau.of A. & J. L. JOHNSON

TOOLE, LULA EUBANKS JOHNSON, b.11-12-1885, d.4-10-1965

JOHNSON, SOVEREIGN, b.8-13-1877, d.1-16-1920

JOHNSON, MINNIE LOU, no dates, dau.of S. & L. JOHNSON

JOHNSON, EVELYN REBECCA JOHNSON, 7-18-1910, only date

JOHNSON, WILLIAM SOVEREIGN, b.4-9-1937, d.4-10-1937

JOHNSON, MYRTLE BOHLER, 1-18-1901, only date

JOHNSON, JOHN RANDOLPH, b.1-21-1906, d.12-13-1960

TOOLE, MALLIE, b.5-21-1889, d.2-9-1959

TOOLE, EVA MAE, b.3-12-1889, d.12-14-1966

EUBANKS, RICHARD McKELLER, b.12-24-1910, d.8-10-1989

EUBANKS, JOSEPH STANHOPE, b.11-11-1879, d.7-3-1952

EUBANKS, KATE McKELLER, b.4-25-1882, d.3-11-1968

TOOLE, GADDIS B., b.10-5-1906, d.9-19-1960

TOOLE, JAMES M., b.2-26-1891, d.9-30-1938

TOOLE, A. J., b.11-2-1867, d.12-31-1933 {Andrew James Toole}

TOOLE, M. LULA, b.12-17-1870, d.12-25-1908, wife of A. J. TOOLE {M. Lula Bell}

EUBANKS, W. F. b.9-7-1882, d.10-22-1953

EUBANKS, ANNIE & NEELY, Erected by W. F. EUBANKS, no other inscription

BUFORD, LESSIE LEE, no dates

BUFORD, INDIA ANGIS, b.10-25-1870, d.11-24-1898, wife of ENOCH BUFORD

EUBANKS, LUCIUS W., CO H 14 SC INF CSA

LOWE, LULA AVALAN, b.1-8-1883, d.7-11-1883, inf.dau.of S. L. & A. C. LOWE

LOWE, CARRIE MAY, b.8-11-1887, d.7-8-1888, inf.dau.of S. L. & A. C. LOWE

EUBANKS, DAISY I. BATES, b.12-27-1874, d.8-31-1927, wife of S. A. EUBANKS

BATES, SOVEREIGN M., b.10-14-1843, d.10-18-1876

BATES, HARRIET H., b.4-8-1945, d.1-29-1916, wife of SOVEREIGN M. BATES

EUBANKS, ALLICE BATES, b.2-20-1868, d.7-6-1927, wife of L. B. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, L. BRANTLEY, b.4-12--1853, d.12-3-1937

EUBANKS, Infant of J. A. & M. L. EUBANKS, no dates

EUBANKS, Infant of J. A. & M. L. EUBANKS, no dates

JOHNSON, NORMA RUTH, b.6-7-1897, d.5-22-1898, dau.of J. W. & MINNIE JOHNSON

JOHNSON, JOHN W., b.3-7-1874, d.2-22-1897

JOHNSON, CALLIE, b.2-7-1883, d.12-3-1903

EUBANKS, MARY, b.4-6-1836, d.8-21-1847

EUBANKS, CHARITY, no dates

RISH, MELLISSA EUBANKS, b.7-8-1856, d.2-10-1907, wife of G. S. RISH

EUBANKS, DARLEY, d.3-16-1876, age 73 years

EUBANKS, MAHALEY, no dates

EUBANKS, b. & d.1886, infant son of H. G. & OLIVIA EUBANKS

104

PAGE 6 SPRINGS CEMETERY

EUBANKS SAMUEL C., no dates

EUBANKS, no dates, infant son of WALTER TED & DORA HEATH EUBANKS

TOOLE, CELT L., b.1-4-1895, d.12-26-1969, SC PVT US ARMY WWI

WILLIFORD, KATIE TOOLE, b.9-11-1871, d.4-5-1939

WILLIFORD, JOSEPH F., d.12-12-1921, age 69 years

EUBANKS, ELSIE, b.3-29-1869, d.12-15-1938

EUBANKS HALEY G., b.2-15-1861, d.2-3-1933

EUBANKS, OLIVIA, b.9-19-1861, d.12-21-1902, wife of U. G. EUBANKS

EUBANKS, LUTHER, b.5-19-1883, d.6-30-1898, son of H. G. & OLIVIA EUBANKS

EUBANKS, MRS. GEORGIA L., d.12-30-1889, 24 years old

EUBANKS, MINIE M., b.10-3-1888, d.8-21-1889

EUBANKS, JOHN L., b.9-11-1854, d.1-2-1931

OWENS, M. RUSSELL, b.7-20-1909t d.4-4-1933

OWENS, S. T., b.12-22-1862, d.12-11-1928 {Stephen Toole Owens}

OWENS, JESSIE BATES, b.8-17-1873, d.4-14-1953, wife of S. T. OWENS

OWENS, b.10-18-189-, d.8-30-1898, inf.son of S. T. & J. B. OWENS, broken

Stone {George Owens}

OWENS IRENE d.7-8-1903, 4 years, 1 mo. 18 days, dau.of S.T. & J.S. OWENS

OWENS, GEORGE D., d.8-1898, age 10 mos., 15 days, son of S.T. & J.S. OWENS

OWENS, MRS. KIZANNAH TOOLE, d.10-20-1887, age 54

HATCHER, CAROLINA b.3-15-1842, d.2-22-1917

HOLLEY, ALLIE C., b.3-13-1868 d.8-14-1957

HOLLEY, MARTIN JOSEPH, b.11-4-1892, d.6-4-1893, son of J.E. & A.C. HOLLEY

MAYO, GEORGIA HATCHER, b.10-8-1873, d.5-17-1965

TOOLE, J. E. DESS, b.1862, d.1929 {Jobe Emory Toole}

TOOLE, M. VIC., b.1872, d.1937 {Victoria Bates}

TOOLE, d.1907, infant dau. of J. E. & M. V. TOOLE

END OF LIST

*Note: Cemetery also inventoried by Sheila Drennan and Sanford Toole 1997